THE BROADENING OF HUMANISM 229
Greek and the appeal to concrete experience. The most individual
note in his work was the emphasis laid on physical training through
wrestling, running, swimming, riding, hunting, dancing and
archery. It was not inappropriate that the commendation of these
strenuous exercises should find a place in the educational scheme
of an English knight well versed in his Plato and familiar with the
practice of the Italian courts. That was a side of education apt
to be overlooked by book-wise scholars like Erasmus.
The Governour had a very considerable effect on educational
opinion in England, but less than it would have had if the Re-
formation* had not broken in on the quiet progress of events a
few years after its publication. In the end, humanism became
firmly established in the schools and universities of Protestant
England ; but it was the narrow humanism of More's generation
rather than the broader humanism of Elyot.
Even that, however, was much more satisfactory than the
wrecking of education which for a time seemed threatened.
Under any circumstances a change in the ecclesiastical system of
a country so far-reaching as the Reformation could not but bring
serious risks for the schools which formed an integral part of
the system ; and the suddenness of the change in England added
greatly to the difficulties of the situation. That, with the ex-
ception of the elementary schools, which were practically destroyed,
the educational institutions of England emerged from the crisis
strengthened rather than weakened was a remarkable achieve-
ment, due as much to the zeal of the Tudor monarchs for learning
as to a great rising of educational interest on the part of the people,
which reached its high-water mark in the reign of Queen Elizabeth.
Henry VIII directed his attention to the schools immediately after
he had broken with Rome and had dissolved the monasteries.
Certain of the colleges at Oxford and Cambridge received generous
endowments with property alienated from the monks, nine schools
were re-founded on a larger scale in the great monastic centres,
and other re-foundings were under way at the time of bis death.
Somerset the Protector, acting for Henry's son Edward, had every
intention of continuing his policy. But the Chantries Act of 1548,
which transferred the endowments of the chantries to the king,
expressly in the interests of education, had a most unfortunate
outcome. In the stress of the times the greater part of the con-
fiscated lands which had previously provided funds for educational